Maniola jurtina, Crete - photo © Ch. Almpantakis
Maniola jurtina is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae on the island of Crete, Greece.
Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Family: Nymphalidae > Subfamily: Satyrinae > Tribus: Satyrini > Genus: Maniola
Male to female: 40-45 mm
There is sexual dimorphism in this species. Males have a generally dark brown upperside, whilst females have an additional orange color in the discal and the postdiscal area.
The upper side of the male is uniformly light brown with a medium-sized black spot, white-pupiled (“eye") at the apex of the forewing, while the female has a tawny patch extended around this “eye".
The underside forewing is ochre-colored with a brown border, with the same " eye" at the apex in the male, while the hindwing is greyish to brown with a more or less orange band in the female.
The external margin of the hindwing is concaved in both sexes, and female appears larger than male.
In hazy or weak sunlight the butterflies bask on bushes, or amongst grasses, but when conditions are overcast or cool they hide amongst low vegetation. Usually opens the wings when cloudy.
Maniola jurtina in Crete can be found in medium-altitude places, both wet and dry places, fields, forest edges, glades, meadows, waysides. Prefers both wet and dry places.
The larva lives on Poaceae plants.
The butterfly flies in one generation per year.
The butterfly could be possibly confused with Hyponephele lupina (Oriental Meadow Brown) which also occurs in Crete. A useful tip to spot the difference is that the external margin of the hindwing in both sexes of Hyponephele lupina is strongly concaved between veins, more than Maniola jurtina.
Maniola jurtina is a quite common species in Crete in comparison to Hyponephele lupina which has a limited distribution on the island.
Least Concern (LC)